Interpersonal communication and marital affection among Couples in Abakaliki Metropolis is a project work that was written by Okorie Victor Kelechi who is a graduate of Mass Communication in Ebonyi state University, Abakaliki.
This research work on Interpersonal Communication and marital Affection Among Couples in Abakaliki Metropolis contains the complete five (5) chapters.
Therefore this work is a way to enable other researcher to get to write on their own project work. In order words, Interpersonal communication and marital Affection is a guild to help all other project writer or researcher to carry on their research effectively.
Interpersonal Communication and Marital Affection Among Couples
Background to the Study
Apparently, during Interpersonal communication men refuse to admit and would rather make wrong choice than bow to a woman, even though she may be right in a particular situation. Some men feel threatened when the woman they love becomes successful. They assert their superiority to counter this security demanding those women in the process (Odukoya, 2003; Ndolo, 2001).
Okenwa and Ushede (2001) stated that just as human beings differ in their biological structure, no two individual are same as such no two individual responds in the same way to given stimulus at all time. From this statement, one can deduce that what might be a problem in ones marriage may not be a problem in another.
Odukoya (2003) and Ndolo (2001) observed that men are naturally egocentric and any attempt to force anything on them would result in crisis. The desire to love and be loved by another is usually beyond more attraction. Oftentimes, it involves being able to give up certain things for the other person whom one has feelings for but does not happen as one expect. Perhaps, as a result of certain events which are beyond one’s control or better still, which are merely ignored, so many women especially young ones have had to contend with certain behaviours, manners or habits in their spouses in the course of their matrimony.
Ugbomah in Ushede (1996) sees that for a woman who wants to effect a change in her man, she must make him see reasons by using fear by evoking persuasive messages. In trying to convince the man, persuasion should be based on substance. The issue of changing habits can never be over emphasized because the various dislikes which female folks complain about in their men are as a result of strongly held attitude, values, traits and habits. All of which have become the solid core of an individual (Ndolo, 2001).
Ugbomah further noted that an attempt to effect a change in a man during marriage usually leads to conflict in the home and that is the reason while when woman are dating their men they would have accepted such behavior pattern in life but would start complaining once they get married to such man. Just as human beings differs in their biological structure/composition, no two individuals are the same, as such no two individuals responds in the same way to a given stimulus and no individual responds in the same way to any given stimulus all the time. From this was say that what might be a problem in one marriage may not be recognized as a problem in another marriage (Okenwa, 2001).
Statement of the Problem
A review of Abakaliki shows the level of marital conflict and divorce which is needed to be resolved among couples. Also, many couples are going through a lot of stress and hardship as a result of marital conflicts. More so, some are too busy with their digital devices, Computers, Smart Phones, office duties and outside recreational activities; this made them not have quality time for their spouse. The effect on the children, married couples at Abakaliki urban are devastating as observed by the researcher.
Unarguably, it has been observed that greater percentage of individuals who engage in love relationship do not end up in marriage and those who end up marrying themselves are likely to have problems of divorce and conflict which generates from habits, traits of life partner which must be dealt with.
Basically, the main reason for this study is actually to identify the characters, habits and attitudes displayed by couples that may be annoying and in subsequent time proffer possible solutions.
- Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to analyze the influence of interpersonal communication to aid marital affection among couples in Abakaliki metropolis. Moreover, the study will also seek to achieve the following;
- To examine the level of marital affection among married couples in Abakaliki metropolis.
- To determine if couples spend quality time with their spouse in Abakaliki Metropolis.
- To ascertain the causes of marital divorce among couples in Abakaliki Metropolis.
1.4 Research Questions
In trying to carry out this research, we try to formulate the following questions;
- What is the level of marital affection among couples in Abakaliki metropolis?
- What is the significant underlining cause of divorce that is prevalent among couples in Abakaliki metropolis?
- Do married couples spend quality time with their spouse in Abakaliki.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The basic motivations for this study is to enable some prospective persons have the basic knowledge about interpersonal communication and marital affection among couples in Abakaliki. Therefore this study will be of a great benefit to the following groups;
Bachelors and Spinsters: It will enable young men and ladies that are preparing to get married to know what it takes to have marital affection and in the same vein enjoy and have a happy home.
Parents: This will enable parents to teach their children what they need to do in order to have a great union.
Academic Field: This will spur the mind of readers to know more about affection and interpersonal communication and also contribute to the archives of literatures written on interpersonal communication and marital affection among couples.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This is aimed at examining the level of Interpersonal communication and marital affection among couples in Abakaliki Metropolis. It also emphasis on the influence of interpersonal communication to aid marital affection among couples which is mentioned in the objectives of the study.
1.7 Operational Definition of Terms
Interpersonal: This means one on one, face to face, or person to person. It is pertaining to relations between husband and wife.
Communication: In this study, it has to do with positive transfer or exchange of messages or information from husband to wife
Interpersonal Communication: Here, we mean face to face regular communication between husband and wives
Marital Affection: It is the desire to like and be liked by husband and wife, it is also the likeness of husband and wife.
Couples: In this study, couples mean husband and wife who are legally married and have fulfilled the marriage rites and resident in Abakaliki metropolis.
Abakaliki: This research work is specifically in Abakaliki Urban.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Review
2.1.1 The Concept of Interpersonal Communication
The concept of Interpersonal communication is the central approach within the broad communication process that brings out people’s emotions, needs, feelings, attitudes. It is a person to person, direct, face to face, verbal and non verbal interaction that establishes, builds, nurtures and maintains trusting and lasting relationships (Ndolo, 2001). Some people are born with great interpersonal skills while some acquire them in their various processes of development. Some learn while others find it difficult to relate with people no matter the kind of caliber of people you may come across.
The ability for married couples to communicate with the right communication skill will determine the level of your affection for each other. This shows that any one that may be born with great interpersonal skills and those that learn through the various processes of development still need to know the essential ingredient for interpersonal communication. These ingredients may include; understanding the dynamics of listening, verbal aggression and persuasion.
Schut (1969) and Ndolo (2001) suggested that interpersonal communication satisfy our needs for inclusion, control and affection. The need for inclusion includes our desire to be accepted to feel wanted and to be a part of a group both work and in our personal lives. It also includes our need to accept our spouse the way they are. However, we are all different in terms of need. While some of us demand a great amount of inclusion, others avoid closeness and interpersonal contact almost entirely.
Sperry (1980) in Ndolo (2001) observed the various communication skills which help to improve the interpersonal communication among spouse. These communication ingredients are by understanding and listening which improves relationship with others. It is a complex effect which requires efforts, energy, skill and active involvement. This simply means that married couples should have listening skills, which are also the ingredient for effective communication which may include;
- Sensing: We one way or the other receives messages through the process known as selective attention-turning out distractions by focusing on selected messages. It is physically hearing the messages and attending to it. If married couples can apply this listening process it will go a long way to build up the home.
- Interpreting: The ability to dictate what was said and how it was said will determines how it will be interpreted by the receiver (spouse) of the messages. We assign meaning based on our own experiences, values, beliefs, ideas, expectations, roles, needs and personal history. It will go a long way to aid the affection in the home.
- Evaluating: Avoiding assumption will also go a long way to help build up marital affection among couples. Not jumping into conclusion with the ideas giving by people who are charismatic in nature.
- Remembering: It is very much important that married couples should always retain anything that is been said by their spouse. This remembrance such as names, people, events, ideas, feelings such take a life time for it to be erased from the memory.
- Responding: There are various ways one may respond to any messages by spouse that may have been passed, these may include; smiling, praising, support and giving constructional criticism. For marital affection in the home irrelevant comment, interruption, unsolicited replies should be avoided.
2.1.2 Interpersonal Communication: An Overview
Interpersonal communication is largely recognized by many when it comes to marriage and parent to children communication. In fact, it is a key to building up marriage, most especially if couples make good use of the needed communication skills (Ndolo, 2001). He further opines that any connection between two people regardless of its sources is a relationship and before any interpersonal communication may exist in marriage there have to be connection and agreement which remains a crucial component of affection among couples.
According to wilson et al (1985) interpersonal communication is the transactional process of exchanging messages, negotiating meaning to convey information to establish and maintain relationships. The major function of Interpersonal Communication provides for intimacy, social integration and opportunity for nurturing behavior, reassurance of worth, assistance and guidance. Weiss (1969) in Ndolo (2001)
Benis et al. in Ndolo (1973 and 2001) suggested that interpersonal communication among couples serves the following functions;
- Expression of feelings: The relationship allows the participants to express their emotions both about the outside world and the relationship itself.
- Confirmation: This function is served in a relationship when your sense of self is confirmed by others. It answers the question “who am I?” in relation to others around you.
- Change of Influence: In this type of communication, the participant come together for the primary purpose of influencing situation can range from persuasion to therapy
- Creation and work: These relation functions are instrumental. Some goals or task outside the relationship is served.
Sipper and Ness (1966) suggested that during interpersonal communication in dating relationship it serves the following functions; form of recreation, socialization, means of status grading and status achievement, and courtship. Furthermore, it is impossible to have close intimate relationships with everyone we meet, rather we need a wide range of relationships in order to keep our lives flowing smoothly; some for intimacy, some for fun, some for sex, some for money, some for gossip, some for companionship, some for handy man/handy woman and some for job advancement.
There are several elements of communication and interpersonal communication including; source, receiver, messages, channel, feedback, noise, context, encoder and decoder. These elements are also applicable to married couple to aid affection. They include;
- Sensitivity: It is an individual skill and ability to perceive and to interpret what is perceived with empathy. Sensitive people empathized because they are willing and able to take others into account frequently.
- Self disclosure: It is very much important for husband and wife to reveal everything about themselves which may include; desire, needs wants and goals. Married couples that practices self disclosure will stand a chance to have affection that will stand the test of time. Self disclosure is all about revealing the truth about oneself. There are some reward of self disclosure which may include;
- Knowledge of self and gain new perspectives of ourselves and deeper understanding of own behavior.
- It increases communication effectiveness; it is an essential part of getting to know your wife or wife the more. Married couples will understand the messages they tend to pass across in order to make it understandable to a large extent. By so doing will tell is a person is joking or he is serious in his doings.
- Self disclosure also enhances the meaningfulness of communication with partners and this shows that they care enough about each other.
2.1.3 Marital Affection and Interpersonal Communication
Interpersonal communication helps in the flow of affection among couples and every partner is on an assignment to work and build each other. There are vacuums that must be filled. However, when a man does not have friendship and relationship at home, he will look outside and the ability for spouse not to talk down on them will improve affection and productivity in the home (Ndolo, 2001).
Therefore, is an abomination for your womanhood to ruin the life of your man’s home thereby worsening the marital life. It is your duty to make your home better. It is a credit to a man to be better because he met you and also to a woman. It is a minus to a woman for a man to be worst since he met her. People should look at the man you make him to be better (Oyedepo, 2011).
We can vary our approach depending on the angle one may fall into be it underpersonal, overpersonal or personal (Schut, 1969; Ndolo, 2001).
There are some factors that may appeal to one another when it comes to affection they include;
- Attractiveness: What makes spouse get attracted to each other may be the physically attractiveness or the behavior is attractive. Husband and wife must find themselves physically attractive rather than unappealing. That is why they say beauty is in the eye of the beholder.
- Similarity: We value ourselves when we attracted to people. If people could have mate made to order, the mates would look, act and think very much like themselves. In order words, we validate ourselves when we have things in common with our spouses. It’s simple like a mirror having the image of ourselves.
- Proximity: To have marital affection there should be closeness. It is allows a communication transaction to occur and sentiment or attraction to intensify. That is the reason why we see close friendship usually result from geographical closeness. Also extramarital relationship is as a result of proximity.
- Complementary: Most that we fall in love with someone because we are not having the same characteristics we are having, therefore married couples should complement themselves.
- Communication Transaction: The level of communication that married couples have experienced will go a long way to build the affection they have for themselves. It thereby influences their love life and form the basis of their judgments will determine the level of receptivity and also the perspective or point of view.
- Reinforcement: We get so attracted to the person that rewards us with so many gifts, pay attention to us or compliments us. We also become so attracted to the person we reward with gifts. We therefore believe that such person is worth our effort. Married couples need to give themselves a treat and enjoy they reinforce themselves for more. Hence, aid affection.
There are some things that may get husbands and wife annoyed but it all depend on the ability to understand each other.
2.1.4 Marriages that Works
Marriage is a union between a man and a woman, whereby both of them literally become one. In marriage, Ndolo (2001) explained that there are certain things that men do not like women do and this will make them get annoyed. However, it all depends on the ability to understand each other and communicate effectively and this will thereby strengthen their home.
Marriage is beautiful and true reflection of God’s covenant with us. Nobody enters into the marriage union with the plan to exit the next day. Failure in marriage stem principally from in compatibility and are results of wrong choices based on the wrong decisions made for obvious reasons. (Odukoya, 2003).
Ushede et al (2001) believed that in marriage we do so many things that annoy our partner. It is therefore left for them to accommodate each other and be able to bear up with other’s faults because that is the essence of human living and the basis for every relationship and any marriage that will work they should know what makes each other get annoyed and by so doing they try to avoid such but try to understand each other’s feeling.
2.1.5 What Annoy Women in Men in Terms of Marriage
- Not Providing: When the husband does not bring enough money for the upkeep of the family, it infuriates the woman. Because to a woman, a man is supposed to take care of his family’s basic needs. This is true as the Bible says: “a man who cannot provide for his family is worst than an infidel…” This may lead to disrespect, but the solution is to provide for the family.
- Cheating: When the husband starts cheating on the wife. It doesn’t only annoys the wife nut it affects her emotionally, spiritually and physically. It tend to break her heart and makes are dwindle in her love for the husband which at the end could result in a divorce because there is no more love and trust that binds the relationship and marriage together.
It leads to lack of love and trust for each other, disrespect and sometimes divorce. The only solution to this is for the husband to stick to their wives as it said in the Bible “therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother and shall cleave onto his wife”. There is nothing in women that is not in your wife. Enjoy and love her and remove your eyes from lustful desires.
- Laziness: A lazy man is a pain in the flesh. Imagine a home where the man is lazy and refuse to work in order to put food on the table and the woman becomes the bread winner. No matter how rich she is or how much money she has or how much money she’s got she will not be happy because that is not her responsibility.
She will really be annoyed with the man for not taking up his responsibility and laboring her. A woman naturally is meant to relax and contribute her quota to her husband’s portion for the success of everything. This could lead to disrespect for the husband. It brings about quarrel, unhappiness, strife and bitterness in the family.
The only solution to this is for the man to endeavour to be more hardworking no matter the little you are doing. Add little effort because a little effort leads to success.
- Autocratic: Some men are autocratic by making decisions on their own without consulting their wife. They believe that whatever they say must be done while other people’s opinion are irrelevant. This makes women get angry, send this simply means that you are telling them that their opinion will not count.
- Ungrateful: Some husbands do not appreciate anything their wives do for them. They believe its right and they are entitled to whatever has been done for them, they will feel so reluctant to do things for them. Meanwhile, the only solution is to learn to appreciate their wives and whatever they do for them. It encourages love and helps build a strong relationship, life and family.
- Wives do not feel happy when husbands come back late home late at night; although they want them to work they also want them to be at home.
- Wives do not like husbands who shout and best them up. Husbands should bear in mind that when both of them were joined together in holy matrimony, they became one flesh and body. As you do to her, you also do to yourself.
- Untidy/Dirty habit: A husband who is untidy and develops exhibits a bad habit makes the wife angry. Dirty habit such as dressing carelessly, irregular baths, mouth odour, scattering things all over the house, disorderliness e.t.c. Husband should learn to be neat, appealing and cute. They should also be coordinated and orderly which will also help them in home and organization management.
- Wives do not enjoy husband who is too serious for life, lacks sense of humor, and lacks the ability to listen when they are talking and also the ability to communicate. A man who does not have these things should develop them because they are the spices of every relationship and survival/sustenance’s of every marriage. Learn to listen, communicate, laugh and enjoy each other’s company.
- When the husband lacks interest in important family events like celebrating marriage date, birthdays, anniversaries e.t.c it makes the wife to be annoyed and feel unloved, uncared and ignored.
- A husband that is stingy and lacks commitment in the things of God and his family and also do not have the fear of God in him, is source of annoyance to the wife.
- A husband who is extravagant, wasteful, makes no plan for future and disorganizes, makes the wife angry. Husbands are meant to be good managers. When they become good managers, they are able to manage their family well, manage their expenses, manage their jobs and even for the future.
Ndolo further suggested that there are other things that women do not like men do and this will make them get annoyed.
2.1.6 What Annoy Men in Women in Terms of Marriage
- A wife that untidy and dirty is a source of annoyance to the husband. Women are meant to be clean and neat always because their body system is designed in such a way that it emanates smelly substances from their private part which causes a woman to smell. A woman should bath at least two times a day; apply wonderful cosmetics, always looking good and appealing, attractive and admirable. A dirty woman cannot keep the home clean and tidy. No matter how dirty a man is, he would not want to come back home to meet a dirty home and scattered house.
However, it causes men to start looking outside for clean and appealing ladies. That is why it is said that some women push some men into the hands of other women, or some wives push their husbands into immoral acts.
- Wives that cannot cook are a source of annoyance to their husbands. Every man wants to come back to his house and eat the home –made dish which is satisfying and enjoying. A woman who does not know how to cook should learn it, it’s a learning process.
- Husbands do not like wives who cannot plan and who are not intelligent.
- A wife that is disobedient is a source of annoyance to the husband. Dishonest in that she lies, steal, cheats on her husband.
- Husbands really detest nagging, grumbling and complaining women or wives; they are thorns in the flesh. Nagging means continuous repetition of particular thing.
- Laziness; Wives should try as much as possible to be hardworking In every endeavour of theirs, both in the home and in their working place. Husbands do not tolerate lazy wives, it makes them annoyed. Just as they are hardworking, there should be a corresponding action too for the well being and growth of the family.
- Husbands feel happy, encouraged and fulfilled when their wives encourage and promote their dreams and visions. A woman who discourages and kills the vision of her husband is source of annoyance to the man.
- A wife that is extravagant, selfish and self centered is a source of concern to the husband and this makes him unhappy.
- Husbands no not like wives who compares them with other men. When you compare him with other men, you bring his ego down and indirectly telling him that he is not better of than the other men and the other is more real and fulfilled and better than him. This can make a man hide into a shell or make him turn around and dislikes you instead. Wives and women generally, should not compare two persons; leave them the way they are.
- Husbands do not like women that are disrespectful, heady i.e unsubmissive and domineering. Women who will want to run the family with him and will not be able to identify the head of the family.
2.2 Empirical Studies
There are some empirical studies that had been carried which include; Beer (2016) conducted a research on “the relationship between communication and high level of marital satisfaction”. The findings highlight that communication plays a significant role and intricate role in marital satisfaction both on direct and indirect manner. The result emphasizes the importance of how married couples communicate rather what they say to be particularly in this regard. It was limited to articles which were published between 2005 and 2015 which was reported on quantitative and qualitative empirical data.
Esere (2011) research work on “Influence of spousal communication on marital stability” The main focus of this study was to find out that there was an apparent awareness that lack of communication between couples poor communication style is also association with an increased risk of divorce and marital separation.
Uwom (2015) conducted a study on “The causes and effect of communication”. The findings showed that most of the respondent agrees to the statement that lack of effective communication is the bare to break down in marriage. It was recommended that couples considered communication serious in their relationship status with the courtship stage.
Stewart (2012) did a research on “The impact of length of relationship satisfaction in couples”. The result of the study indicates that the pattern of communication within the couple is an important predictor of relationship satisfaction.
2.3 Theoretical Framework
There are various theoretical evidences studied by a number of empirical works, which Thbaut and Kelly (1959) explained better with their “Cost-Benefit Theory”.
Cost – Benefit Theory
This theory suggests that married couples will only maintain affection and good relationship as long as the benefits outweigh the costs. Some of the benefits include; personal growth, improved feelings about self, increased self- knowledge, great resources, children, assistance with particular tasks, e.t.c. The cost Include; time spent on the relating with each other, amount of energy expended, psychological stress created, physiological stress, social limitations and many more.
In addition, Kelly (1959) further suggested that if the cost begins to outweigh the benefits, we may decide to terminate the relationship with your partner but if the benefits outweigh the cost, we may escalate relationship development. It is important to note that this may occur when they both tend to reach an agreement.
Thbaut (1959) better explained that to gain stimulation during affection we have many dimensions that need stimulation from married couples ideas and personalities. We human beings with minds and imaginations need intellectual stimulations which may allow us to either agree or disagree. Married couples need to touch and hold each other as they are physical creatures. They need to laugh and cry, feel hope surprise, experience warm and affection. They also need experience for our mental, physical and emotional selves which are the opportunities that provide for stimulation that aid affection.
When a woman noticed certain habits in a man before marriage, it is better to be sure if such a habit could be tolerated or not, in case he refuses to change. Changing a man is not like changing a woman. It is easy for a man to change a woman but definitely not in the case of changing a man.
First of all, as a woman, you have to be submissive and prayerful. Remember that he is the head and you can’t compete with him. Then, you have to be patient and your husband could be encouraged to listen to you. You can tell him what you expect him to do and make him see reasons why he has to do those things. Otherwise, if you can’t give him any reasons, there is no point trying to change him in the first place because your effort will be futile (Olanloye, 2003).
2.4 Summary of Literature Review
Affection between the two people is a force central to their perceptions of other. We all experience degrees of attraction towards others. Some we enjoy being around, others we find repelling. Degree of feelings ranging from liking -disliking what attracts some people to us while others are not so attracted (Taylor, 1984; Ndolo, 2001). So as married couples need to have likeness for each other by means of perception and by so doing bring about closeness.
Schut (1969) referred to affection as the desire to like and be liked by someone just as this research work talks about affection among couples. It is reflected on the loving relationship, which shows that we identify with people we like than people who we do not like. Also, people with low need are known as underpersonal who will avoid self disclosure.
On the other hand, a person with high level of affection is considered overpersonal and will take special pain for being disliked by anyone most especial you husband or wife. While, a personal individual holds the middle ground by ensuring she balances situations in order to be liked when affection will help to determine how to talk with and listen to the partners in our communication with them is more effective.
3.1 Research Method
The researcher adopted a descriptive survey method in order to explore the necessary information for this study. According to Obasi (1999), a survey research refers to a process of eliciting data from a target population through either questionnaire instrument, interview instrument or both, and subjecting such data to statistical analysis for the purpose of drawing conclusions. This information can be transformed into number or quantitative data by using the attitude scaling or by counting the number of respondents who gave a particular response, thus generating frequency data. Hence, the researcher will go into the field to collect and analyze data on interpersonal communication and marital affection among couples in Abakaliki metropolis in order to generalize the results to other areas in Ebonyi State through the use of questionnaire instrument.
3.2 Population of the Study
The population of the study was drawn from three local government area which make up Abakaliki urban, they include; Abakaliki Local Government Area (149,683), Ebonyi Local Government Area – (127,226) and Izzi Local Government Area- (236,679). The population of the study is therefore; (513,588)
3.3 Sample Size Determination
A sample is a subgroup of the total population relevant to the problem. To determine the sample size for this study, Australian Calculator was used below;
Therefore, the sample size of the study is 384
3.4 Sampling Techniques
The aim of sampling in research according to Iyiowe (2002) is to use the information obtained from part of the population to take decision on whole course or courses, because information from the whole members of the population can be more complicating, more time consuming and costly; the participants that are suitable and more relevant were selected equally in the sample.
Instrument of Data Collection
For the purpose of this study, the instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. According to Uzoagulu (2011), a questionnaire is a carefully designed instrument for collecting data in accordance with specifications of the research questions and hypotheses; it elicits written responses from the subjects of the study through series of questions and statements put together with specific aims in mind.
The structured questionnaire will be divided into two parts; Part A is designed to collect relevant data of the respondents while Part B will discuss the set of actual research questions that elicited the expected responses from the respondents which were generated to guide the study. The questionnaire instrument will be structured based on Rensis Likert’s five (5) point scale of Agree (A), Strongly Agree (SA), Disagreed (D), Strongly Disagreed (SD), and Undecided (U) boxes. This will enable the respondents to respond to the questionnaire items/statements by ticking their best opinion.
Validity of the Research Instrument
The instrument for data collection was a self constructed questionnaire. It was titled “interpersonal communication and material affection among couples in Abakaliki metropolis”. The instrument will be given to the project supervisor and two lecturers in the Department Mass of Communication who are experienced and knowledgeable in measurement and evaluation to ensure relevance of the content and effectiveness to the problem under investigation. Corrections will then be made and irrelevant items will be discarded.
3.8 Reliability of the Research Instrument
Reliability is seen as the degree to which a test is free from measurement errors, since the more measurement errors occur the less reliable the test (McMillan and Schumacher, 2006). According to Obasi (1999) reliability of a research instrument is the ability of an instrument to provide the same consistent results over time when applied to the same sample. He further argued that, when the results of a measuring instrument are consistent over time, dependable and credible, then we can say that the measuring instrument is reliable. This implies that reliability of an instrument is the consistency of the test in measuring whatever it purports to measure.
The researcher will apply the test-retest method to determine the reliability of the instrument. The researcher will administer the questionnaire to a defined sample of the study and allow for an interval of two (2) weeks time. After two (2) weeks, the same group will be administered with the same test (questionnaire). The results will ensure the reliability by subjecting it correlation analysis.
3.9 Method of Data Collection
The researcher collected data for this study using the questionnaire. Questionnaire will be administered face to face to the respondents by the researcher. The face to face administration of the questionnaire was more appropriate to get valid data from the respondents. Also, the need to ensure effectiveness of data collection exercise necessitated the use of face to face questionnaire administration.
More so, questionnaires will be collected immediately to ensure complete return of the questionnaire since the respondents were not interviewed in a particular place. This method will help reduce the number of missing or lost questionnaire after collection.
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
This deals with the type of statistical tool applied in analyzing data in a research work. The data collected by a researcher through an instrument(s) of data collection are analyzed using statistical tools like regression analysis, correlation analysis, descriptive statistical method among others.
However, in this study, the researcher will make use of simple percentage method and tables to analyze the responses from the questionnaire instrument and inference will be drawn on the basis of percentages of the responses gotten. The formula for simple percentage is given as:
n x 100
n = number of responses
∑ = summation of the numbers in the distribution
More so, Chi-square (X2) method will be applied by the researcher for empirical testing of the hypotheses that guided the study. The formula is given thus:
X² = ∑ (O-E)²
X2 = Chi-Square value
∑ = Summation sign
O = Frequency observed
E = Frequency expected
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Analysis
Data collected from the respondent were analyzed with simple percentage method and results subjected to descriptive analysis for easy interpretation and understanding. Therefore, out of 384 copies of questionnaire, 377 were dully filled and returned while 7 lost in transits. This gave us 98.2% of returned questionnaire. The analysis and findings were presented below as follow;
This first section below shows the table of respondent’s personal data in frequencies and in percentage.
51 and above
Table 1: Marital conflict and divorce is significantly prevalent among you and your spouse
Table 2: Lack of Interpersonal communication causes Conflict among you and your spouse
Table 3: You and your spouse spend quality time with each other
Table 4: Pattern of communication within your spouse is an important predictor of relationship
Table 5: You and your Partner are going through a lot of stress and hardship as result of marital conflict
Table 6: An individual who engage in love relationship wiil you end up in marriage.
Table 7: Closeness to your partner determines their level of interpersonal communication
Table 8: For marital affection to exits among you and your partner, irrelevant comments, interruption, unsolicited replies should be avoided.
Table 9: Cheating your partner may lead to lack of love, trust and respect for each other.
The bio-data of the respondent on this study area captured in their bio data included sex, age, marital status and educational qualification. On the respondent sex’, the respondents were revealed that 27% of them which made (211) numbers of respondent were males while females had 15%. By this, the number of females used in the study was less than the number of males (116). On the age bracket, of the respondent 57% (86) were within the age bracket of 18-28 years, 47% (45) were within the age bracket of of 29-39, while 35% (141) were within the age bracket of 40-50 years and 17% (99) were within the age bracket of 51 and above.
The data in table 1 showed that 12% (20) of respondent agreed that marital conflict and divorce are prevalent and 75% (120) of respondent strongly agreed that marital conflict and divorce are prevalent.
The table 2 showed that 165 (75%) Agreed that lack of interpersonal communication causes divorce, 112 (23%) strongly Agreed, 34 (29%) Disagreed, non strongly disagreed and non were undecided. This shows that greater percentage agreed that lack of interpersonal communication causes divorce in Marriage.
On spending quality time with their spouse, the table shows that 191 (78%) agreed that they spend quality time with their spouse, 153 (53%) strongly agreed, (33) 16% disagreed, 0% strongly disagreed while 0% were undecided. The table shows that greater percentages don’t spend quality time with their spouse that is while there is always marital conflict and divorce.
The data in table 4 shows that 132 (62%) of individuals strongly agreed which is the greatest percentage of individual, while 5% disagreed and 26% strongly disagreed. This shows that Pattern of communication within the couples in an important predictor of relationship. As regards love relationship ending in marriage, the table 6 above shows that 115 (65%) of individual who engage in love relationship don’t end up in marriage, 90 (47%) strongly agreed, 32% disagreed while both strongly agreed and undecided were nil.
The data in the table 6 shows that 30 (13%) agreed that many couples are going through a lot of stress, 101 (51%) Strongly agreed, 31 (13%) disagreed, 21 (15%) strongly disagreed and 0% undecided. Therefore, greater percentages of married couples go through a lot of stress.
Married couples closeness determines their level of interpersonal communication. The individuals that agreed are 92 (47%) while 101 (53%) strongly agreed. This shows that greater percentage agreed that interpersonal communication is very much important in married couples love life.
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
5.1 Recommendation and Conclusion
This study was carried out to ascertain the level of interpersonal communication and marital affection among couples in Abakaliki metropolis. To find out, the level of interpersonal communication was considered. Beer (2016) conducted a research on “the relationship between communication and high level of marital satisfaction”. The findings highlight that communication plays a significant role and intricate role in marital satisfaction both on direct and indirect manner.
The findings from research question number one revealed that the data in the above table showed that 12% of respondent agreed that marital conflict and divorce are prevalent and 75% of respondent strongly agreed that marital conflict and divorce are prevalent. This shows that married couples need to work on their marital conflict and work on their lack on interpersonal communication.
Findings from research number two shows that data above showed that 165 (75%) agreed that lack of interpersonal communication causes divorce, 101 (51%) strongly agreed, 34 (13%) Disagreed, non strongly disagreed and non were undecided. This shows that greater percentage agreed that lack of interpersonal communication causes divorce in Marriage. Therefore, married couples need to work on their love life and build their interpersonal communication.
From the findings so far, majority of the respondent agreed that many couples are going through a lot of stress and hardship as result of marital conflict. In this cases their are married couples who need to learn and influence their partner through interpersonal communication.
In relationship, we do many things that annoy our partners. The key however is to learn how to communicate to each other and be able to bear up with each other’s faults because that is the essence of human living and the basis for every relationship to grow and blossom. Also, it is not good for parents to be so autocratic, so incommunicado as to scare the children, Loves does not thrive in an atmosphere of fear.
In the same vein, getting along does not mean the absence of conflict but rather implies our ability to manage conflict in ways that produce higher levels of harmony and productivity. For individuals to get along in the spirit the true independence they have to develop self awareness, undertake responsibility for their actions ; accepts and appreciate difference in others thought and feelings accurately and assertively including others in your activities. Be open to divergent styles and points of views, be a team player , work together to solve problems and complete project and peacefully resolve the myriads of conflicts they encounter and experience along the way. other post can be gotten here
The research work titled “Interpersonal communication and marital affection among couples in Abakaliki metropolis” is fully good to enable married couples to know how to go about their marriages and enable them to build their homes wisely. The following are therefore the recommendation given as carried out on this research;
- Married couples should endeavour to always figure out time to always stay with their spouse in order to enable good time relationship.
- It is recommendable that all couples need to plan their home well by engaging in regular communication to have a long lasting relationship
- It is therefore advisable that partners should spend quality time with their partners in a frequent basis.
- All relationship before marriage should be based on communication basis in order to end up in marriage.
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Department of Mass Communication,
Faculty of Social Science and Humanities,
Ebonyi State University,
15th October, 2019.
REQUEST TO FILL QUESTIONNAIRE
I am a final year student of the above Department conducting a research on “interpersonal communication and marital affection among maried couples in Abakaliki metropolis”. It is in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Science Degree (B.Sc) in Mass Communication. I will be glad if you assist in filling the attached questionnaire to enable me carryout this research successfully.
I assure you that your response will be treated in confidence and used solely for this research.
Thanks for your anticipated co-operation.
OKORIE VICTOR KELECHI
Section A: Demographic Characteristics of Respondents
Tick good [ √ ] in the box provided in an answer(s) that are most appropriate to you and supply answers to where questions are given.
- Sex: (a) Male [ ] (b) Female [ ]
- Age: (a) 18 – 28 [ ] (b) 29 – 39 [ ] (c) 40 – 50 [ ] (d) 51 and above [ ]
- Marital Status: (a) Single [ ] (b) Married [ ] (c) widow / Divorced [ ]
- Educational Qualification: (a) F.S.L.C [ ] (b) S.S.C.E [ ] (c) NCE/Diploma [ ] (d) Degree/Above [ ]
SECTION B: RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Please tick [ √ ] here appropriately.
- Marital conflict and divorce is significantly prevalent between you and your partner. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) undecided [ ]
- Lack of Interpersonal communication causes divorce between you and your partner. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) undecided [ ]
- Pattern of communication within your partner is an important predictor of satisfactory relationship. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) undecided [ ]
- You and your partner going through a lot of stress and hardship as a result of marital conflicts. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] ( c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) undecided [ ]
- Interpersonal Communication provides for intimacy and social integration between you and your spouse. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) undecided [ ]
- For marital affection to exits between you and your partner, irrelevant comments, interruptions, unsolicited replies should be avoided. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) Undecided [ ]
- Women are more responsible in maintaining good interpersonal communication. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) Undecided [ ]
- Your closeness determines the level of interpersonal communication between your partner. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) Undecided [ ]
- Closeness to your spouse allows communication transaction to occur and sentiment or attraction to intensify. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) Undecided [ ]
- Cheating your partner may lead to lack of love, trust and respect for each other. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ](e) Undecided [ ]
- Laziness, dishonesty and extravagant pattern of life among couples bridges communication gap between you and your partner. (a) Strongly Agreed [ ] (b) Agreed [ ] (c) Strongly Disagreed [ ] (d) Disagreed [ ] (e) Undecided [ ]
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